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Climat : Le Gulf Stream peut-il s'arrêter ?

 Salut à tous,   

Du site Futura Planète : Le Gulf Stream est le principal système de courants de l'Atlantique occidental. Formé à l'Est de la Floride par plusieurs masses d'eaux issues du Golfe du Mexique, il se divise en segments, aux tracés sinueux, dirigés vers l'Est et le Nord-Est. 

  Le système climatique est une machine à convertir et à distribuer l'énergie que la terre reçoit du soleil. C'est un système complexe aux acteurs multiples. Outre le soleil, source exclusive d'énergie pour le système, les différents compartiments terrestres jouent chacun leur partition. Les continents qui absorbent une part de l'énergie solaire et la restituent à l'atmosphère avec une intensité qui dépend des propriétés de leur surface et de la végétation qu'ils portent. La cryosphère (calottes glaciaires du Groenland et de l'Antarctique, banquises) qui renvoie, par réflexion, vers l'espace une quantité d'énergie perdue pour le système climatique qui dépend de l'état de la glace mais surtout de la surface englacée. L'océan et l'atmosphère qui sont les deux fluides de transfert de chaleur des régions équatoriales vers les hautes latitudes.

   Tous ces éléments du système climatique, soleil compris, évoluent en permanence avec des vitesses qui leur sont propres et qui sont très différentes. Toute variation, toute perturbation de l'un d'entre eux retentit sur les autres qui réagissent à leur propre rythme. Le système climatique court après un équilibre qu'il ne peut jamais atteindre. Il varie sans cesse à toutes les échelles de temps. L'essentiel est pour nous qu'il soit suffisamment stable pour rester dans des amplitudes et vitesses de variation supportables.

   Assurant le transport et la distribution de l'énergie thermique l'atmosphère et l'océan sont les agents dynamiques du système. En permanence en contact l'un avec l'autre ils ne cessent d'échanger de l'énergie entre eux et sont indissociables. C'est le couple qu'ils forment qui gère le climat de la planète aux échelles de temps qui nous concernent. Toute la difficulté de traduire ce couplage vient de ce qu'ils ont des propriétés et des vitesses d'évolution très différentes.

   L'atmosphère n'a guère de mémoire. Il a un temps de réponse très court aux perturbations dont il est l'objet et il évolue très rapidement (photo 1). C'est toute la difficulté de la prévision météorologique. Actuellement, les services météorologiques avancent une prévision à sept jours. En dépit des progrès de la modélisation de l'atmosphère il semble qu'il y ait une limite, un horizon, au-delà duquel il sera toujours impossible de faire une prévision météorologique c'est à dire un temps au bout duquel l'état de l'atmosphère sera complètement indépendant de ce qu'il était à l'instant initial. Cet horizon est vraisemblablement d'une quinzaine de jours¨...  ( Voir l`article au complet )

https://www.futura-sciences.com/planete/dossiers/climatologie-gulf-stream-peut-il-arreter-637/

Pégé

 Windows 7 / Windows XP Pro / Windows 10 / Ubuntu 14.04 LTS / Linux Mint 17 MacOS X iBook, version 10.4.11 ¨Tiger¨.


Smokies Hosting Birds of Prey Program

Great Smoky Mountains National Park is again teaming up with the Balsam Mountain Trust for a special program on Birds of Prey at the Oconaluftee Multipurpose Room near the Oconaluftee Visitor Center on Friday, April 20.

Michael Skinner, Executive Director of the Balsam Mountain Trust, will conduct an hour-long Birds of Prey program beginning at 11:00 am. This program will provide visitors with an up-close glimpse of some of the planets most recognized and revered wild animals such as the tiny eastern screech owl and northern bald eagle.

“We are delighted to continue our partnership with Balsam Mountain Trust,” said Lynda Doucette, Supervisory Park Ranger. “This program provides an opportunity for park visitors to see and learn about these beautiful birds first hand.”

Balsam Mountain Trust is a local non-profit whose mission is the stewardship of the natural and cultural resources on Balsam Mountain Preserve and the Blue Ridge Mountain region, through effective land management practices, scientific research, and environmental education. The Trust has earned special distinction as a place where non-releasable birds of prey are taken in, cared for, and then utilized as educational ambassadors.

The Oconaluftee Multipurpose Room is adjacent to the Oconaluftee Visitor Center on Newfound Gap Road, 2 miles north of Cherokee, North Carolina. For more information on the upcoming Birds of Prey program, please call the Oconaluftee Visitor Center at (828) 497-1904.



Jeff
HikingintheSmokys.com
RockyMountainHikingTrails.com
HikinginGlacier.com
TetonHikingTrails.com

HikingintheSmokys.com Celebrates 10th Anniversary

It's hard to believe, but its been 10 years since we launched HikingintheSmokys.com. Building this website has given me an outstanding opportunity to explore dozens of trails in the Great Smoky Mountains that I likely never would've considered in the past - simply because I would've continued hiking the most popular trails. Moreover, this website has given me an opportunity to discover many things about the park that I otherwise probably wouldn't have taken the time to learn, such as its rich and extensive human history, as well as its natural history, including its wide range of flora and fauna.

When I first launched this website in 2008 I covered roughly 20 hikes. Today the site covers a total of 67 hikes, and continues to grow each year. Over the last 10 years I've committed myself to making this the best possible online hiking resource for the Smokies by providing accurate trail descriptions, providing interesting historical anecdotes pertinent to as many trails as possible, and providing photographs that accurately showcase the beauty and the highlights of each hike.

Since launching HikingintheSmokys.com in 2008 my wife and I have launched three additional sister websites for three other national parks. They include HikinginGlacier.com in 2011, RockyMountainHikingTrails.com in 2012, and TetonHikingTrails.com in 2014. If you've never had the opportunity to visit any of these parks, I highly recommend all three of them. Like the Smokies, each of these parks offer many outstanding hiking opportunities.

Thanks to all of you for your support over the years!



Jeff
HikingintheSmokys.com
RockyMountainHikingTrails.com
HikinginGlacier.com
TetonHikingTrails.com

National Park Service Announces Plan to Address Infrastructure Needs & Improve Visitor Experience

As part of its ongoing efforts to address aging park infrastructure and improve the visitor experience, the National Park Service (NPS) announced today changes to the entrance fees charged at national parks. The changes, which come in response to public comments on a fee proposal released in October 2017, will modestly increase entrance fees to raise additional revenue to address the $11.6 billion in deferred maintenance across the system of 417 parks, historic and cultural sites, and monuments.

Most seven-day vehicle passes to enter national parks will be increased by $5 and will be implemented in many parks beginning June 1, 2018. Yosemite National Park for example will increase the price of a seven-day vehicle pass to the park from $30 to $35. More than two-thirds of national parks will remain free to enter. A complete list of park entrance fees may be found here.

All of the revenue from the fee increases will remain in the National Park Service with at least 80 percent of the money staying in the park where it is collected. The funds will be used for projects and activities to improve the experience for visitors who continue to visit parks at unprecedented levels. Increased attendance at parks, 1.5 billion visits in the last five years, means aging park facilities incurring further wear and tear.

“An investment in our parks is an investment in America,” said U.S. Secretary of the Interior Ryan Zinke. “Every dollar spent to rebuild our parks will help bolster the gateway communities that rely on park visitation for economic vitality. I want to thank the American people who made their voices heard through the public comment process on the original fee proposal. Your input has helped us develop a balanced plan that focuses on modest increases at the 117 fee-charging parks as opposed to larger increases proposed for 17 highly-visited national parks. The $11.6 billion maintenance backlog isn’t going to be solved overnight and will require a multi-tiered approach as we work to provide badly needed revenue to repair infrastructure. This is just one of the ways we are carrying out our commitment to ensure that national parks remain world class destinations that provide an excellent value for families from all income levels.”

The price of the annual America the Beautiful National Parks and Federal Recreational Lands Annual Pass and Lifetime Senior Pass will remain $80.

“Repairing infrastructure is also about access for all Americans,” Secretary Zinke said. “Not all visitors to our parks have the ability to hike with a 30-pound pack and camp in the wilderness miles away from utilities. In order for families with young kids, elderly grandparents, or persons with disabilities to enjoy the parks, we need to rebuild basic infrastructure like roads, trails, lodges, restrooms and visitors centers.”

Fees to enter national parks predate the establishment of the National Park Service in 1916. For example, Mount Rainier National Park began charging an entrance fee in 1908. Factoring in inflation, the $5 entrance fee the park charged in 1914 would be the equivalent of a $123 entrance fee today—more than four times the price of the new seven-day $30 vehicle pass.

Entrance fees collected by the National Park Service totaled $199 million in Fiscal Year 2016. The NPS estimates that once fully implemented, the new fee structure will increase annual entrance fee revenue by about $60 million.

In addition to implementing modest fee increases and enhancing public-private partnerships aimed at rebuilding national parks, Secretary Zinke is working closely with Congress on proposed bipartisan legislation to use revenue derived from energy produced on federal lands and waters to establish a special fund within the Treasury specifically for “National Park Restoration”. The billfollows the blueprint outlined in Secretary Zinke and President Trump's budget proposal, the Public Lands Infrastructure Fund.

The National Park Service has a standardized entrance fee structure, composed of four groups based on park size and type. Some parks not yet aligned with the other parks in their category will raise their fees incrementally and fully incorporate the new entrance fee schedule by January 1, 2020.



Jeff
HikingintheSmokys.com
RockyMountainHikingTrails.com
HikinginGlacier.com
TetonHikingTrails.com

Park Plans Prescribed Burn Operation in Little Cataloochee

Great Smoky Mountains National Park fire management officials plan to conduct a 120-acre prescribed burn in Little Cataloochee on Thursday, April 12, weather permitting. Little Cataloochee Trail will be closed to all public use on Thursday, April 12 through Friday, April 13. Visitors should expect to see smoke in the area.

The burn unit is located along Little Cataloochee Trail between the trailhead on Old Highway 284 and the Little Cataloochee Baptist Church. The area is bounded by Little Cataloochee Creek and Coggins Branch. This prescribed burn is one in a series of low-intensity controlled burns used over a number of years to restore oak woodland communities that provide habitat for wildlife including elk. The prescribed burn will be conducted by national park staff and is being funded by the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation.



Jeff
HikingintheSmokys.com
RockyMountainHikingTrails.com
HikinginGlacier.com
TetonHikingTrails.com

Cades Cove Loop Road to Close Early on Thursday, April 12

Great Smoky Mountains National Park officials announced a temporary closure of the Cades Cove Loop Road beginning Thursday, April 12, at 5:00 p.m. for pavement repairs near the Loop Road entrance. This early closure will not affect hours for the Cades Cove Campground, Cades Cove Store, Cades Cove Visitor Center, or Cades Cove Riding Stables. The road will re-open to traffic on Friday morning, April 13. This work is part of the $2.5 million paving contract occurring along Laurel Creek Road, Townsend Entrance Road, and Tremont Road.

The entire project should be completed by June 15, though work schedules are subject to revision as needed for inclement weather. Visitors traveling to Cades Cove should expect weekday, single-lane closures and traffic delays throughout the project. Single-lane closures will be allowed for up to two miles at a time on Laurel Creek Road and half a mile on Townsend Entrance Road and Tremont Road. The lane closures will be managed with flagging operations and a pilot car to lead traffic through work zones. In addition, some parking areas and pull-offs will be closed intermittently. Contractors may elect to work during the evening and nighttime hours as needed. To better accommodate traffic during periods of heavy visitation, there will no lane closures on weekends, or holidays.

For more information about road conditions, please visit the park website at https://www.nps.gov/grsm/planyourvisit/temproadclose.htm



Jeff
HikingintheSmokys.com
RockyMountainHikingTrails.com
HikinginGlacier.com
TetonHikingTrails.com

Géopolitique : Le diable est aux vaches ! (*)

Salut à tous, 

Du site Huffpost Québec : Les exemples actuels de dérives autoritaires sont trop nombreux de par le monde pour les ignorer !

   ¨ (*) Cette vieille expression française, synonyme de confusion, de chaos et de désordre, traduit bien l'état du monde actuel.

   Lorsque le leader du monde libre, les États-Unis d'Amérique, cesse d'être un phare dans la nuit des peuples, lorsque la plus grande démocratie implose sous le poids de ses propres faiblesses érigées en dogmes constitutionnels intouchables (comme le droit de porter des armes), lorsque le président de ce pays-là en vient à se conduire comme un bully de cour d'école, alors les repères moraux disparaissent et l'on se retrouve dans un monde où règne la loi du plus fort.

Loin de la Déclaration d'Indépendance et des nobles principes démocratiques qui l'inspirèrent, au lieu de servir d'étoile polaire politique, le compas moral américain, depuis la Guerre d'Irak et en particulier sous l'administration actuelle, cède la place à une girouette qui désoriente les nations du monde qui étaient pourtant prêtes à s'orienter sur l'idéal démocratique.
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La loi et l'ordre

   La « loi du plus fort » est généralement accompagnée d'un complément : l'ordre. On revient donc à l'idée ultraconservatrice de la loi et l'ordre, couple « enfanteur » des pires dérives autoritaires et populistes.

   Et comme un refrain incantatoire, on nous répète qu'il faut maintenir la loi et l'ordre, la loi et l'ordre, la loi et l'ordre...

   Mais de quelle loi et de quel ordre parle-t-on? Un ordre constitutionnel, imposé au plus faible par le plus fort, pour enfermer des peuples, aujourd'hui les Catalans et qui sait demain les Québécois, dans des prisons juridiques? Un ordre économique qui se traduit le plus souvent par l'esclavage des peuples et des individus et leur soumission aux diktats et aux intérêts des entreprises multinationales, sans nom et, surtout, sans conscience?

    <<Quiconque remet en cause le bien-fondé de la logique économique, même si elle mène à la surconsommation, au gaspillage, au dépeuplement des régions agricoles et, on le voit trop bien, à un saignement à blanc des ressources de la planète, se fait taxer de gauchisme>>¨...
( Voir le blogue au complet) 

https://quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/patrice-dallaire/le-diable-est-aux-vaches-1_a_23318604/?ncid=tweetlnkcahpmg00000011

Pégé

Windows 7 / Windows XP Pro / Windows 10 / Ubuntu 14.04 LTS / Linux Mint 17 MacOS X iBook, version 10.4.11 ¨Tiger¨.


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